Heart disease explained: Signs, symptoms, and how to reduce your risk

In this article, we will discuss signs symptoms and how to reduce heart diseases risk. Heart diseases can be affected by genetic factors, lifestyle choices, or other damages incurred during the lifetime.

India is suffering from one of the heaviest burdens of heart disease in the world. The number of deaths resulting from cardiovascular diseases is thought to be over 4.77 million in the year 2020. The urban and rural populations have both seen a dramatic rise in the incidence of heart diseases over the past few decades. Even people of a young age are seen to be suffering from heart diseases and the numbers are alarming. Studies show that the reason o this high burden of heart disease is the rise in the number of risk factors such as abdominal obesity,Guest Posting diabetes, hypertension, and stress.

As heart disease is such a common issue and it affects a large number of the Indian population, it is always best to be informed about the signs and symptoms of heart diseases. If you have been experiencing any of the symptoms and signs mentioned below, you must visit the one of the top cardiac hospital in India for further investigations. This blog will also discuss the various measures that can reduce the risk of heart diseases and help prevent them.

Types of Heart diseases

Heart diseases can be affected by genetic factors, lifestyle choices, or other damages incurred during the lifetime. Some conditions like high cholesterol, diabetes and high blood pressure can increase the risk of a person developing heart disease. The signs and symptoms of heart diseases may differ based on the kind of heart disease. Some of the most common heart diseases and their signs and symptoms are discussed below.

Coronary heart disease

When the blood vessels of the heart are affected, the condition is known as coronary heart disease. Many times, the arteries can develop plaque build-up which can, in turn, narrow the arteries hindering the blood flow. The narrowing of the arteries can be so severe that it may sometimes cause a full blockage of the blood flow. When the blood flow to certain parts of the body is blocked, it can result in a heart attack.

Signs and symptoms

- Chest pain

- Pain in the back, neck, jaw or throat

- Shortness of breath.

In addition to these symptoms, women may also feel nausea and extreme fatigue.


Abnormal speed or rhythm of the heartbeat is known as arrhythmia. Arrhythmia can lead the heartbeat to be irregular, too fast or too slow. If the rhythm of the heartbeat is wrong, it can cause the heart to be unable to pump blood to the rest of the body with enough pressure or force.

Signs and symptoms

- Fluttering in the chest

- Fast beating heart- tachycardia

- Slow heartbeat- bradycardia

- Discomfort or pain in the chest

- Dizziness or light-headedness

- Unconsciousness or passing out

Structural heart disease

The heart is made up of four valves that help to ensure efficient pumping of blood around the body. Any conditions that affect these valves or other structures of the heart can cause serious cardiovascular diseases. Many of these conditions are congenital or present at birth. Others conditions can develop later in life.

Signs and symptoms

- Shortness of breath when laying down or after activity

- Fatigue

- Swollen ankles and feet

- Irregular heartbeat

- Abnormal sound or heart murmur

Heart failure

When the heart is unable to pump enough blood or the muscles of your heart is too week to pump blood with each heartbeat, the condition is known as heart failure. This can also happen when the heart’s muscles become too stiff and are not able to fill up completely or efficiently with blood. This condition is often seen in the elderly but can happen in persons of any age.

Signs and symptoms

- Cough

- Weight gain

- Fatigue

- Swollen ankles, fingers, lower back, belly and feet

- Puffiness of eyes

- Issues in concentration and memory

Risk factors for heart disease

Among the risk factors of heart diseases, some can be controlled and some can’t be.

Some of the controllable risk factors include-

- High cholesterol and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)

- Smoking

- Obesity

- High blood pressure

- Physical inactivity

People with diabetes may be at increased risk of angina, heart attack CAD and stroke.

The common risk factors that cannot be controlled are –

- Ethnicity- Non- Hispanic white and black people along with the people of pacific and Asian heritage have a higher risk of heart disease than Native Americans and Alaskans.

- Family history- The risk of heart disease increases if a close male relative under 55 years of age or a close female relative under 65 years of age has had heart disease.

- Age- The risk of heart disease rises with age.

- Sex- Males are at higher risk for heart diseases than females.

How to reduce the risk of heart diseases

Prevention of heart disease is much better than looking for the treatment options. While some risk factors cannot be controlled, it is necessary to aim to lower the risk factors that can be controlled.

Have healthy cholesterol and blood pressure levels
Manage stress. Talk to your medical care expert if you have been feeling overwhelmed, anxious or are finding it difficult to cope with the events in your life.
Eat healthy
Exercise for 30 to 60 minutes on most days.
Avoid smoking
If you have a family history of heart d

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